How many good poems does it take to make a poet?

evapicola_1-03 SYLVIA PLATH in an interview was asked how she first began writing poetry, what sort of thing did she write about when she first began?  Sylvia Plath’s reply:

“Nature, I think: birds, bees, spring, fall, all those subjects which are absolute gifts to the person who doesn’t have any interior experience to write about. I think the coming of spring, the stars overhead, the first snowfall and so on are gifts for a child, a young poet.

Twelve year old Eva Picová had the “interior experience” Sllvia Plath speaks of — it’s called the Terrezin concentration camp, renamed Theresienstadt by the Germans. It’s called premature adulthood at gun point.

Theresienstadt concentration camp, a transit camp for children and the elderly who were eventually packed into cattle cars pointed towards Auschwitz and their death. Also a camp for men and women selected for forced labor. Beatings, torture, starvation and disease were commonplace. Eva Picová lived through a typhus epidemic, seeing her friends and others succumb to the disease.  She saw adults saw her parents suffer, saw them agonize, languish, struggle under the brutal and terrorizing treatment wielded by the Nazis.

The adults at Theresienstadt manage to provide art and writing classes for the children. Despite severe congestion, food shortages and compulsory labor, the extensive educational and cultural activities in the ghetto reflected the prisoners’ will to survive the unsurvivable; provided a distraction from their eventual selection to the gas chamber, a distraction from the harsh bare-bone living conditions; gave them, especially the children, a voice to resurrect hope from despair.

A Dr. R. Feder gave Eva Picová’s poem to the State Jewish Museum in Prague. She most likely wrote more. She was allotted one more year to do so.

You can find a collection of children’s art and poetry from Terezin in the book titled “I Never Saw Another Butterfly.” Included is Picová’s poem.

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IF EVA PICOVÁ DID SURVIVE THERESIENSTADT CONCENTRATION CAMP I IMAGINE THAT SHE WOULD CONTINUE TO WRITE POETRY, JOINING THE FEW SURVIVOR POETS AND WRITERS WHO GAVE US A PERSONAL HISTORY OF THE UNIMAGINABLE, THE ABSURD, THE MERCILESS. WHO GAVE US THE TELLING OF —  FINDING THEIR OWN VOCABULARY/VOICE TO EXPRESS WHAT IT WAS LIKE TO BE THE CHOSEN PEOPLE — THE PRIMARY PARTICIPANT IN THE FINAL SOLUTION — WHAT IT WAS LIKE TO WITNESS AND ENDURE THE NAZI’S SYSTEMATIC DEDICATED SLAUGHTER OF 6 MILLION JEWS. THEN & NOW —

Poet and writers born from the Holocaust.

  klugerboth-10Ruth Klüger  (born 30 October 1931)  is Professor Emerita of German Studies at the University of California and a Holocaust survivor. In Auschwitz, Kluger composed poetry in her head and, somehow, knew there would be a future for her after the war. Ruth and her mother along with a girl they adopted in Auschwitz were lucky and resourceful: they survived, and when her mother died in 2000, Kluger “felt a sense of triumph, because this had been a human death, because she had survived and outlived the evil times and had died in her own good time, almost 100 years after she was born.”

Her book “Still Alive: A Holocaust Girlhood Remembered” was named one of the year’s 10 best books by the Washington Post, 2001. Winner of the Thomas Mann Prize and the Prix Memoire De La Shoah

Ruth Kluger, an amazing women; her chutzpah, insight, honesty, creativity, survival instincts comes through In her book and everything else she takes on. Ruth Kluger didn’t call it quits after escaping Auschwitz. Risking her own life she help save the lives of Jews during the Holocaust by smuggling them on ships into Palestine.

The following:
SPIEGEL, a German publication interviews Ruth Kluger. Nov 7, 2006

SPIEGEL: Ms. Klüger, at the moment you have a research post at the University of California in Irvine, and before that you were a guest lecturer at the University of Göttingen. Do you sometimes go back to your home town Vienna?

 Klüger: Yes.

 SPIEGEL: But the emotions you experience in Vienna must be very different to how you feel in Göttinge

Klüger: Yes, what is strange is … how should I put it? Our personalities are such that we instinctively rely on our own experiences rather than using our brains. For me Göttingen is not a Nazi town, even though I know that Braunschweig is very nearby…

 SPIEGEL: Braunschweig is of course where Hitler was made a German citizen in 1932.

Klüger: Exactly. But Vienna reeks of anti-Semitism. For me every cobblestone in Vienna is anti-Semitic. If I hadn’t fled with my mother and her friend in time, by the end of the war I could have ended up in Bergen-Belsen. But I have never been there, and I don’t go to these concentration camp memorial sites.

SPIEGEL: These memorial grounds are certainly not built with you in mind.

Klüger: It is just not my camp.

SPIEGEL: But you do you travel occasionally to Vienna?

Klüger: I did a guest professorship there. It was very unpleasant. The people I had to work with were awful.

SPIEGEL: So you believe that anti-Semitism is still deeply ingrained in the city? That it will always be there?

Klüger: Vienna will never be rid of anti-Semitism. I have the feeling the city doesn’t even want to be. When I got the invitation to go there, I couldn’t help thinking: “This is the university where your father studied.” And the first few weeks I was there, I couldn’t shake off the feeling that my father was standing behind me. I kept asking myself what he would have said if he had been there. And after a few weeks I knew what he would have said: “You are pretty stupid to have come here.”

select for the complete interview

Nelly Sachs  (10 December 1891 – 12 May 1970)

nellysachs-06 a Jewish German poet and playwright whose experiences resulting from the rise of the Nazis in World War II Europe transformed her into a poignant spokeswoman for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. She fled to Sweden in 1940 with her mother just before being deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp, and lived in Sweden for the rest of her life, emotionally unable to face the idea of returning to Germany.

In 1966 she was awarded the Nobel prize for literature (for her “German Jewish” poetry).

Her following poem questions the unfathomable  — all of the German, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Romanian people who had a ‘hand’ in the Holocaust.

HANDS  by Nelly Sachs

Hands death’s gardener,
you who from the cradle-camomile of death
growing on the hard paddocks or hillside,
have bred the hothouse monster of your trade.
Hands, what did you do,
when you were the hands of little children?
Did you hold a mouth organ, the mane of a rocking horse,
did you cling to your mother’s skirt in the dark ….
You strangling hands, was your mother dead, your wife, your child?
So that only death was left for you to hold in your hands,
in your strangling hands?

Abraham Sutzkever sutzkever1_2-07was one of the great Yiddish poets of his generation who evoked the nightmare of the Holocaust with images of a wagonload of worn shoes and the haunting silence of a sky of white stars.

He was forced to dig his own grave at gunpoint; his newborn son was poisoned by the Germans in the ghetto hospital. Less than a year later, Sutzkever wrote a poem from a child’s viewpoint begging its mother to:

Strangle me with your Mama fingers

That played On my willow cradle.
It will mean:
Your love is stronger than death.
It will mean:
You trusted me with your love.

In 1941, he and his wife were sent to the Vilna Ghetto. Ordered by the Nazis to hand over important Jewish manuscripts and artworks Sutzkever and his friends hid a diary by Theodor Herzl, drawings by Marc Chagall and other treasured works behind plaster and brick walls in the ghetto. On September 12, 1943, he and his wife escaped to the forests, and together with fellow Yiddish poet Shmerke Kaczerginsky he fought the Germans as a partisan.

Paul Celan “There is nothing in the world for which a poet will give up writing, not even when he is a Jew and the language of his poems is German”

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Paul Celan was born in Czernovitz, Romania, to a German-speaking Jewish family. The death of his parents and the experience of the the Holocaust are defining forces in Celan’s poetry and his use of language.

Celan was imprisoned in a work-camp for 2 years, until February 1944, when the Red Army’s advance forced the Romanians to abandon the camps, whereupon he returned to Czernovitz shortly before the Soviets returned. At that time friends recall Celan expressing immense guilt over his separation from his parents, whom he had tried to convince to go into hiding prior to the deportations, shortly before their death.

After escaping the labor camp, Celan lived in Bucharest and Vienna before settling in Paris. In Paris, he translated poetry and taught German language and literature at L’École Normale Supérieure. Though he lived in France and was influenced by the French surrealists, he wrote his own poetry in German.

Celan’s poems often contain brief, fractured lines and stanzas, with compressed and unpredictable imagery, with the forms of the poems echoing the difficulty of finding language for the experiences he witnessed. Celan received the Bremen Prize for German Literature in 1958 and the Georg Buchner Prize in 1960

Celan committed suicide by drowning in the Seine river in Paris, April 1970.

His most famous poem, the “Todesfuge” (Death Fugue)

Death Fugue

Black milk of daybreak we drink it at evening
we drink it at midday and morning we drink it at night
we drink and we drink
we shovel a grave in the air there you won’t lie too cramped
A man lives in the house he plays with his vipers he writes
he writes when it grows dark to Deutschland your golden hair Marguerite
he writes it and steps out of doors and the stars are all sparkling
he whistles his hounds to come close
he whistles his Jews into rows has them shovel a grave in the ground
he orders us strike up and play for the dance

Black milk of daybreak we drink you at night
we drink you at morning and midday we drink you at evening
we drink and we drink
A man lives in the house he plays with his vipers he writes
he writes when it grows dark to Deutschland your golden hair Margeurite
your ashen hair Shulamith we shovel a grave in the air there you won’t lie too cramped
He shouts jab this earth deeper you lot there you others sing up and play
he grabs for the rod in his belt he swings it his eyes are blue
jab your spades deeper you lot there you others play on for the dancing

Black milk of daybreak we drink you at night
we drink you at midday and morning we drink you at evening
we drink and we drink
a man lives in the house your goldenes Haar Margeurite
your aschenes Haar Shulamith he plays with his vipers
He shouts play death more sweetly Death is a master from Deutschland
he shouts scrape your strings darker you’ll rise then in smoke to the sky
you’ll have a grave then in the clouds there you won’t lie too cramped

Black milk of daybreak we drink you at night
we drink you at midday Death is a master aus Deutschland
we drink you at evening and morning we drink and we drink
this Death is ein Meister aus Deutschland his eye it is blue
he shoots you with shot made of lead shoots you level and true
a man lives in the house your goldenes Haar Margarete
he looses his hounds on us grants us a grave in the air
he plays with his vipers and daydreams
der Tod is ein Meister aus Deutschland
dein goldenes Haar Margarete
dein aschenes Haar Shulamith

Primo Michele Levi always wore a short-sleeved shirt with a suit, even in winter, so that his prison tattoo was exposed whenever he removed his jacket.

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Primo Michele Levi, an Italian Jewish chemist and writer, the author of several books, novels, collections of short stories, essays, and poems. His best-known works include “Survival in Auschwitz”, his account of the year he spent as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland. For the last forty years of his life Levi devoted himself to attempting to deal with the fact that he was not killed in Auschwitz. “The worst survived, that is, the fittest; the best all died,” he said.

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Campo di Fossoli was a deportation camp in Italy during the Holocaust taken over by the Germans. On 21 February 1944, Levi and other inmates were transported in twelve cramped cattle trucks to Monowitz, one of the three main camps in the Auschwitz concentration camp complex. Levi spent eleven months there before the camp was liberated by the Red Army on 18 January 1945.

Of the 650 Italian Jews in his transport, Levi was one of twenty who left the camps alive. The average life expectancy of a new entrant at the camp was three months.

Levi died on 11 April 1987, when he fell from the interior landing of his third-story apartment in Turin to the ground floor below.

The coroner ruled that Levi’s death was a suicide. Oxford sociologist Diego Gambetta, “If Levi wanted to kill himself he, a chemical engineer by profession, would have known better ways than jumping into a narrow stairwell with the risk of remaining paralyzed.

CENTRO PRIMO LEVI NEW YORK (CPL) is a New York based organization inspired by the humanistic legacy of writer and chemist Primo Levi, who survived Auschwitz and contributed significantly to the post-World War II debate on the role of memory in modern societies. CPL fosters and supports those interested in Primo Levi’s work, the Italian Jewish past as well as those interested in current perspectives and conversations about the Italian Jewish community today. It offers programs, publishing and networking activities and provides links to libraries and museums, academic and scholarly updates and a monthly newsletter. CPL is a dynamic and informative English language portal offering information and resources on Italian Jewish culture and history to audiences around the world.

A poem at the beginning of his book “Survival In Auschwitz”

 If This Is a Man

You who live safe In your warm houses,
You who find, returning in the evening,
Hot food and friendly faces:

Consider if this is a man
Who works in the mud,
Who does not know peace,
Who fights for a scrap of bread,
Who dies because of a yes or a no.

Consider if this is a woman
Without hair and without name,
With no more strength to remember,
Her eyes empty and her womb cold
Like a frog in winter.

Meditate that this came about:
I commend these words to you.
Carve them in your hearts At home,
in the street, Going to bed, rising;
Repeat them to your children.
Or may your house fall apart,
May illness impede you,
May your children turn their faces from you.

In your watercolor, Nely Sílvinová your heart on fire on the grey cover of a sketchbook is a dying sun or a flower youngest of the summer

nelysilvinova

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Sixteen more of her paintings are in the collection, most dating between April and June 1944. At Terezin she lived in the house number 14 and belonged to Group V. She was a student of Friedl Dicker-Brandeis. You’ll find this painting in the book “I never saw another butterfly”, a collection of children’s drawings and poems from the Terezin concentration camp, 1942 – 1944.

Robert Mezey (born 1935) an American poet, upon seeing Nely Sílvinová painting wrote the poem “Terezin.”

mezyspoem3-02

and much else that is not
visible it says also
a burning wound at the horizon
it says Poland and winter
SILVIN VI 25 VI 1944
and somehow
above the body on its bed of coals
it says spring
from the crest of the street it says
you can see fields
brown and green
and beyond them the dark blue line of woods
and beyond that smoke
is that the smoke of Prague
and it says blood
every kind of blood

blood of Jews
German blood
blood of Bohemia and Moravia
running in the gutters
blood of children
it says free at last
the mouth of the womb it says
SILVIN VI 25 VI 1944
the penis of the commandant
the enraged color
the whip stock the gun butt
it says it says it says

Petrified god
god that gave up the ghost at Terezín
what does it say but itself
thirteen years of life
and your heart on fire
Nely Sílvinová

For more on children’s art of Terezin see:
• I will always come back to life.
• 100 out of 15,000 children saved. 14,900 obliterated. The earth’s  sun runs out of gas in 7 billion years, kaput.
• Resurrect a 9 year old girl from the ashes.

footersilvinova

I will always come back to life.

frantabass_b-02

Dec 2 1941: most every Jew from Brno Czechoslovakia including Franta Bass and family were deported to the Terrizen ghetto; called by the Germans Theresienstad. The Jews shouldered as much of their material life as they could carry, packed it in sacks, luggage, pockets; most of their life left behind for the blue-eyed vultures to pick over.

The Franta Bass family had no idea what was in store for them; they were forced to live in a German Nazi sponsored ghetto. The concept of a ghetto is historically understood by Jews: “What could be that bad, it’s only a ghetto.”

hubofdeath-02

That same day, December 2, 1941, on the transport arrival to Theresienstadt along with the Bass family and other Jews was Jacob Edelstein, appointed by Otto Adolf Eichmann, SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel), to chairperson the Council of Jewish Elders, responsible for the “self-administration” of the Theresienstadt ghetto-camp. Edelstein along with fellow appointees dealt with municipal services, housing, water, sanitation and policing.  They also saw to educational activities, cultural events and religious celebrations. This all feels and looks like a Ghetto. “What could be so awful?”

This: Council of Elders had to ration a meager food supply to those who could work, leaving the elderly and disabled more vulnerable to disease and starvation. (The Nazis had to build an unplanned for crematorium on the grounds of Theresienstadt to dispose of those who died from starvation and disease, 200 a day.)

“What could be so awful?” This: the Council Members had to choose who would be deported to the gas chambers or labor camps and who would remain — who might live and who might die. Not a great job, not easy to live with, a no win situation.  None of the council survived. If they did, in the days to come, living with oneself could be a chore.

childrenfromther-02

The Council of Elders allotted several large houses to accommodate children. Attention was given to the welfare and education of the children. The idea was to keep the children separate from the adults to reduce their vulnerability to depression and despair. Overall the children were housed and fed better than the adults.

The children learn from some of the most sophisticated teachers in German-speaking Central Europe, who were among the prominent Jews to arrive in Theresienstadt. That was one of the defining features of the Theresienstad ghetto-camp; the best artist, musicians, composers, authors, thinkers were in the mix.

All that special attention given the children. And look what Theresienstad ends up with. Out of 15,000 children who spent time at Theresienstad 100 survived. Still, in no way in vain; see and hear what the children gave to themselves and what they left to us: “Children’s Exhibit” at the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C. Collection of the children’s art and poetry from Terezin in the book titled “I never saw another butterfly.”

Franta Bass under the guidance of teacher found an outlet for coping with the awful, frightful, depressing conditions he lived with day-to-day by writing poetry. His poetry gave him the courage to face his imminent death. It gives me, us, us Jews the will, strength, determination, focus to string-up evil by its throat, strangle it, look it in the eye and say, “Never, never again, in the name of Franta Bass and his poetry, never again.”

As Franta wrote in his poem, “I am a Jew.” … “I will always come back to life.”

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100 out of 15,000 children saved. 14,900 obliterated. The earth’s sun runs out of gas in 7 billion years, kaput.



vasewithflowers

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Collage of cut paper and office ledger paper painted over with tempera (archive number 133573) signed “Kitty Passerovaé 27.3. nod

Kitty Markéta Passerovaé most likely survived the Terezin Concentration Camp and her ultimate rail road car run to the gas chamber at Auschwitz because she was 14 years, old enough to be put to work at a labor camp; if younger she stood a chance of being gassed.

Being part of a work force wasn’t a guarantee that you’d make it thru alive. Other life saving factors could have contributed to Kitty’s survival: like having a strong healthy constitution from the get-go, youth, relentless tenacity, luck and if you believe in providence, the hand of God.

If God did choose Kitty Passerovaé, God left a lot of the Terezin children out of the picture. Out of 15,000 children, 100 to 103, survived, Kitty Markéta Passerovaé being one.

Given Kitty Markéta Passerovaé elegant collage of flower and vase made me wonder if she took those artistic sensibilities with her to a life after Terrezin.  I ran her name thru google and found her granddaughter, Simča Labudová.

Google led me to the web site “Slide Share” where slide shows of all kinds are uploaded. One was put together with images and words created by the children of Terezin, taken from the book “I never saw another Butterfly.” Kitty Markéta Passerovaé collage was included. Her granddaughter, Simča Labudová, happen upon it and replied in the Post A Comment area. Her English was spotty; took some liberties, filled in some of the blanks:

profile-photo-SimaLabudov-48x48“Hello, I am the granddaughter of Passerova. Margaret, born 4 September 1929, deported from Prague to Terezin December 8 1943. Her collage of flowers in the vase was used in your book on page 7. I’d love to buy this book. I would like to correct some of my grandmother’s information. She doesn’t live in Australia, nor has a daughter in Hungary. My grandmother lived after the liberation in 1945 in the Czech Republic, where she bore two children, Daniel and Joseph. And she passed away in the Czech Republic.”

Terezin concentration Camp, not your typical death camp.

Terezin specialty: gathering up, housing and killing old Jews, artist, musicians, children, pregnant women all the while being sold to the world as a safe haven for Jews providing for them comfortable living conditions,  adequate food supply, access to the arts, music and a place to express their faith. What bullshit. The Red Cross fell for it.

Terezin called by the Germans “Theresienstadt”

Theresienstadt served an important propaganda function for the Germans. The publicly stated purpose for the deportation of the Jews from Germany was their “resettlement to the east,” where they would be compelled to perform forced labor. Since it seemed implausible that elderly Jews could be used for forced labor, the Nazis used the Theresienstadt ghetto to hide the nature of the deportations. In Nazi propaganda, Theresienstadt was cynically described as a “spa town” where elderly German Jews could “retire” in safety. The deportations to Theresienstadt were, however, part of the Nazi strategy of deception. The ghetto was in reality a collection center for deportations to ghettos and killing centers in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe.

Click here to read more.

bialystock children deported to terezin

Children of the Bialystock Ghetto (Poland) being deported to Terezin.

An after thought.

when I look at the backs of these children

led to Terezin

then to know their end

their parents confiscated

parentless, no loving touch

bereft of any kindness

only barking adults

their confusion

not understanding

to imagine them naked jammed in a

concrete room

along with naked adults

suddenly gasping for air, choking

not understanding

any of it, terrified, alone, screaming

tears, screaming, tears

then silent, then silence

lifeless, no past, no future, dead

buried under a pile of dead adults

when I look at the backs of these children

led into the transport

I want to kill

cut off the balls of those

nazi bastards, tear out their guts with a

butcher knife, rip them apart with my hands,

jam their balls,

guts down their throats

smash their skulls to smithereens

I want to kill them all, not leave a trace

Resurrect a 9 year old girl from the ashes.

A watercolor on tinted paper (archive number 129406). Painting of bunks 14, 15, 16. Next to the bunks are 2 chairs, a table with a vase of flowers.  A light fixture hangs from the ceiling. The wall painted with color stripes.  Hana Grünfeld has nine more drawings in the collection, most dating between April & June 1944.

15,000 — the number of children who passed thru the Terezin concentration camp. From age 4 to 13, they lived day to day with a death sentence waiting to claim them anytime, without notice and brutally swift. The German SS and the local police would collect the children along with their care givers, pack them all in rail cars on route to Auschwitz.

103 — the number of children from Terezin who survived.

◊ ◊ ◊ ◊

Hana Grünfeld was possibly delivered to Auschwitz on this transport: October 5, 1943, the SS authorities deported 1,196 children and their 53 caregivers from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz. None survive.

Or Hana Grünfeld was on one of these transports from September 28, 1944 to October 28, 1944
. The SS deported approximately 18,402 Theresienstadt prisoners to Auschwitz.  By the end of October, approximately 11,077 Jews remain in the camp-ghetto.

Hana Grünfeld last few days.

I close my eyes to witness Hana Grünfeld torn from her mother’s arms; if her mother became hysterical Hana could have seen her mother shot. I witness Hana Grunfeld sitting in the dark on the floor of a rail car for two days and nights without food, water and parents. (Residing at the Terezin ghetto for 3 years, from age 6 to 9, Hana most likely has an inkling of what’s to come.)  I witness Hana in line walking with the other children, ages 4 to 12 years, too young to fear the finality of death, walking with old men, old women who have pondered their death for some time, all of them, both the very young and the very old, herded-off toward the final solution, a gas chamber. This singular constellation of Jews nameless, except for one, Hana Grünfeld.

This post is dedicated to nine-year-old Hana Grünfeld.

Hana Grünfeld. Think about her. Imagine this 9 tear old kid dipping her paintbrush into the watercolors, boldly, spontaneously making a painting of her room, totally absorbed in spite of the daily menace. 

Resurrect a 9 year old from the ashes.
Go viral with Hana Grünfeld

Leave a reply to Hana Grünfeld in this post — her post. Say hello to Hana, introduce yourself, tell her how you feel, reply to a nine year old that was murdered at Auschwitz. Acknowledge her existence. 

She’ll live again thru you. 

Leave a reply to Hana Grünfeld. Keep her memory alive. Honor her. Reply to her. Go viral with Hana Grünfeld.

I will never forget you Hana.  Brave Hana , frightened Hana, thank you for your life and your art. I am privileged to have met you, we have your teacher Friedl Dicker to thank and not to forget “google.” I’d like to give you a hug about now.

◊ ◊ ◊ ◊

The Czech garrison town of Terezin

In October 1941 the Germans moved in, turned Terezin into a ghetto run by the SS. Terrezin became The Theresienstadt ghetto.

Not like any other Nazi-run ghetto; it was a transit camp, a holding pen, for children and the elderly send to death camps and for able-body men and women sent to forced labor camps; it was a model camp used for propaganda, ultimately a concentration camp.

Living with a Death Sentence · Children’s Art and Poetry

The extensive educational and cultural activities in the Theresienstadt ghetto provided a distraction from the looming selections to Auschwitch, the harsh inhumane bare-bone living conditions, the food shortages and periodic brutal treatment by the German SS.

 Artist-in-residence  –  Friedl Dicker-Brandeis

Friedl Dicker, 1916

Imprisoned Bauhaus-educated artist Friedl Dicker-Brandeis, a successful artist and designer, brought with her to Terezin as many art supplies as she could. For the duration of her stay in the camp she devoted her self to teaching art to the children, using methods that have become the foundation of art therapy. Before her deportation to Auschwitz in October 1944, Friedl packed some 5,000 of her students’ drawings in two suitcases and hid them. These remained undiscovered for the next 10 years.

( Possibly Hana Grünfeld and Friedl Dicke, teacher and student, were on the same same transport to Auschwitz. If so we can be be sure they gave solace to one another. )

The child’s art and the 9 year-old Hana Grünfeld featured here in this post is part of a permanent exhibition, the “Children’s Exhibit” at the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C.

You can find a collection of the children’s art and poetry from Terezin in the book titled I never saw another butterfly.”

Hana Grünfeld Born May 20, 1935
Deported toTerezin Dec 14, 1941

Perished at Auschwitz 1944, age 9

Leave a reply to Hana Grünfeld.